Tag Archive | French Verbs

Verbs of Perception

Verbs of perception, such as voirregarderentendre, and écouter, and the verb laisser (to leave, let) are followed directly by the infinitive. The direct object of these verbs is the subject of the infinitive. If it is a noun, it can be placed either before or after the infinitive.

Nous voyons les enfants jouer.

Nous voyons jouer les enfants.

We see the children play.


On va entendre les trains siffler.

On va entendre siffler les trains.

We’ll hear the trains whistle.


Elle a laissé les étudiants entrer.

Elle a laissé entrer les étudiants.

She let the students come in.


When a direct object noun is replaced by a direct object pronoun in sentences with verbs of perception laisser, it must stand before the verb of perception or laisser.

Nous les voyons jouer. | We see them play.


On va les entendre siffler. | We’ll hear them whistle.


Elle les a laissé entrer. | She let them come in.


Verbs of perception and laisser may appear in sentences with two direct objects – a direct object of the verb of perception together with a direct object of the infinitive.

J’ai regardé les ouvriers construire le pont. | I saw the workers building the bridge.


Nous écoutons les musiciens jouer  le morceau. | We are listening to the musicians play  the piece.


J’ai laissé ma fille manger ce dessert. | I let my daughter eat that dessert.


In general, the past participles of verbs of perception and laisser agree with a preceding direct object pronoun.

Je les ai vus construire le pont. | I saw them build the bridge.


Je l‘ai laissé manger ce dessert. | I let her eat that dessert.


Have a great week, everyone!

A bientôt !

Courtney

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Irregular Verbs Resembling Regular Verbs

It is essential to know how to conjugate verbs in French, and more importantly how different verbs (-er, -ir, -re ending) are conjugated. There comes the dilemma when there are irregular verbs that resemble “regular” verbs, but they do not conjugate the same way.

A small number of -ir verbs have the ending of -er verbs in the present tense. The example below is ouvrir (to open).

j’ouvre nous ouvrons
tu ouvres vous ouvrez
il/elle ouvre ils/elles ouvrent

Verbs conjugated like ouvriraccueillir (to welcome), couvrir (to cover), cueillir (to gather, pick), découvrir (to discover), rouvrir (to reopen), souffrir (to suffer).


Another group of -ir verbs is conjugated like -re verbs. The example below is partir (to leave, to set out for [a destination]).

je pars nous partons
tu pars vous partez
il/elle part ils/elles partent

Verbs conjugated like partir: dormir (to sleep), mentir (to lie), repartir (to leave again), sentir (to feel), servir (to serve), sortir (to go out).


The verb mettre (to put) is conjugated like an -re verb, but it only has one t in the singular.

je mets nous mettons
tu mets vous mettez
il/elle met ils/elles mettent

Verbs conjugated like mettre: battre (to beat), combattre (to fight, combat), débattre (to debate), omettre (to omit), permettre (to permit), promettre (to promise).


The verbs convaincre (to convince) and vaincre (to conquer) have two stems. The singular stem ends in -c, and the plural stem ends in -qu.

je convaincs nous convainquons
tu convaincs vous convainquez
il/elle convainc ils/elles convainquent

Infinitives ending in -aindre-eindre, and -oindre have two stems. The singular stem ends in -n, and the plural stem ends in -gn. They follow the pattern of the verb craindre (to fear), in the following example.

je crains nous craignons
tu crains vous craignez
il/elle craint ils/elles craignent

Verbs conjugated like craindre: atteindre (to reach, attain), éteindre (to put out, extinguish), joindre (to join), peindre (to paint), plaindre (to pity), rejoindre (to rejoin).


Verbs like connaître (to know) have a singular stem ending in -ai. In the third person singular form, the -i changes to . The plural stem ends in -ss.

je connais nous connaissons
tu connais vous connaissez
il/elle connaît ils/elles connaissent

Verbs conjugated like connaître: apparaître (to appear), disparaître (to disappear), paraître (to seem, appear),  reconnaître (to recognise).


Verbs with infinitives ending in -uire like construire (to build) have two stems. The singular stem ends in -i and the plural stem ends in -s.

je construis nous construisons
tu construis vous construisez
il/elle construit ils/elles construisent

Verbs conjugated like construire: conduire (to drive), détruire (to destroy), introduire (to introduce), produire (to produce), traduire (to translate).


The verb recevoir (to receive) is conjugated similarly to devoir. Note the change of c to ç before o.

je reçois nous recevons
tu reçois vous recevez
il/elle reçoit ils/elles reçoivent

Verbs conjugated like recevoir: décevoir (to disappoint), apercevoir (to notice).


Until next week, dear readers. Have a wonderful week!

A bientôt !

Courtney

The Conditional Perfect

The conditional perfect tense in French consists of the conditional of the auxiliary verbs avoir or être + the past participle. The past participle follows the same agreement rules as in the passé composé.

avoir

j‘aurais parlé, fini, vendu nous aurions parlé, fini, vendu
tu aurais parlé, fini, vendu vous auriez parlé, fini, vendu
il/elle/on aurait parlé, fini, vendu ils/elles auraient parlé, fini, vendu

être

je serais parti(e), rentré(e), allé(e) nous serions parti(e)s, rentré(e)s, allé(e)s
tu serais parti(e), rentré(e), allé(e) vous seriez parti(e)(s), rentré(e)(s), allé(e)(s)
il serait parti, rentré, allé ils seraient partis, rentrés, allés
elle serait partie, rentrée, allée elles seraient parties, rentrées, allées
on serait parti(s/es), rentré(s/es), allé(s/es)

The conditional perfect expresses the idea would have spoken, would have finished, would have sold. In other words, it labels actions that did not take place, but that would have or could have taken place if certain conditions had been met.

Moi, je n’aurais pas fait ça. | I wouldn’t havedone that.


Personne ne l’aurait compris. | Nobody would have understood him.


Tu lui aurais dit la vérité, toi ? | Would you have told her the truth?

In journalistic language, the conditional perfect may be used to express an assertion that the writer sees as alleged but not yet verified, one deriving from sources rather than investigation. The English equivalent is usually the present perfect tense.

L’enterprise aurait demandé un prêt considérable. | The company had asked (implication – it is rumoured) for a large loan.


Selon des sources en générale bien informées, des officiels de l’ONU auraient été à la solde de régimes brutaux du Moyen-Orient. | According to usually knowledgeable sources, UN officials have been on the payroll of brutal Middle Eastern regimes.


See you all next week, everyone!

A bientôt !

Courtney

The Future Perfect

The future perfect tense in French consists of the future of the auxiliary verb avoir or  être + the past participle. The past participle follows the same agreement rules as in the passé composé.

avoir

j‘aurai parlé, fini, vendu nous allons parlé, fini, vendu
tu auras parlé, fini, vendu vous aurez parlé, fini, vendu
il/elle/on aura parlé, fini, vendu ils/elles auront parlé, fini, vendu

être

je serai parti(e), rentré(e), allé(e) nous serons parti(e)s, rentré(e)s, allé(e)s
tu seras parti(e), rentré(e), allé(e) vous serez parti(e)(s), rentré(e)(s), allé(e)(s)
il sera parti, rentré, allé ils seront partis, rentrés, allés
elle sera partie, rentrée, allée elles seront parties, rentrées, allées
on sera parti(s/es), rentré(s/es), allé(s/es)

The future perfect expresses the idea will have spoken, will have finished, will have sold. In both French and English, the future perfect tense indicates an event that will be completed in the future before another event occurs, or an event that will be completed before some point of time in the future. The simple future tense does not necessarily express the completion of the action – just that it takes place in the future.

The future perfect may appear in main clauses to indicate a future action that will be completed by a certain time.

Ils seront tous partis avant la tombée de la nuit. | They all will have left before nightfall.

The future perfect may appear in subordinate clauses when they are introduced by a conjunction of time indicating that the action of a subordinate clause will be completed before the action of a main clause in the future tense. English uses the present perfect, not the future perfect, in these cases.

On passera le voir quand il se sera levé. | We’ll go by to see him when he has gotten up.


Je te dirai ce qui se passe dès que j’aurai appris quelque chose. | I will tell you what’s going on as soon as I have learned something.


Have an amazing week, everyone!

A la prochaine…

Courtney

Uses of the Subjunctive in Adverb Clauses

An adverb is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb much as an adverb does. Adverbial clauses are introduced by adverbial conjunctions that express time, cause, means, purpose, or consequences such as whenhowbecausein order thatprovided thatwhile, etc.

Certain French adverbial conjunctions are always followed by the subjunctive.

  • à condition que – on the condition that, provided that
  • à moins que – unless
  • afin que – so that, in order that (formal)
  • avant que – before
  • bien que/quoique – although, even though
  • de crainte que – for fear that
  • en attendant que – until
  • encore que – although
  • jusqu’à ce que – until
  • malgré que – in spite of the fact that, although
  • pour que – so that, in order that
  • pourvu que – provided that, as long as
  • sans que – without

Ce n’est pas la peine de nous réunir à moins que tout le monde lise les articles du journal électronique.

It doesn’t pay for us to have a meeting unless everyone reads the articles online.


Discutions le projet avant que le conseiller revienne.

Let’s discuss the project before the consultant returns.


Je vais télécharger ce logiciel bien qu’il soit un peu vieux.

I’m going to download this software even though it’s a bit old.


Pour que vous puissiez me contacter je vous donnerai l’adresse de mon compte email.

So that you can contact me, I’ll give you my email address.


Je vais allumer mon ordinateur pour que vous consultiez le tableur.

I’m going to turn on my computer in order for you to consult the spreadsheet.


Je te dirai tout ce qui m’est arrivé pourvu que tu ne racontes ça à personne.

I’ll tell you what happened to me as long as you don’t tell anyone.


Ton ordinateur ne va pas fonctionner sans que vous y installiez ce nouveau système d’exploitation.

Your computer won’t work without you installing this new operating system.


If the subjects of both clauses are the same, the subordinate clause is usually replaced by an infinitive.

Je ne peux pas commencer mon travail sans déboguer ce programme.

I can’t begin my work without debugging this program.


Qu’est-ce que je dois faire pour télécharger la base de données ?

What do I have to do to download the database?


Ne quittez pas votre ordinateur avant d’effacer tous ce fichiers.

Don’t leave your computer without deleting all those files.


Tu ne pourras pas devenir consultant à moins d’avoir un bon ordinateur portatif.

You won’t be able to become a consultant unless you have a good laptop.


I hope everyone is having a fantastic week!

Merci à vous !

Courtney

The Past Subjunctive

Continuing on from last week’s post on the Subjunctive, we’ll be going over the past subjunctive.

The past subjunctive in French is the subjunctive of the passé composé. It consists of the subjunctive of the auxiliary verb (avoir or être) plus the past participle. The same rules of agreement apply as in the passé composé.

parler, finir, vendre

  • que j’aie parlé, fini, vendu
  • que tu aies, fini, vendu
  • qu’il/elle/on ait parlé, fini, vendu
  • que nous ayons parlé, fini, vendu
  • que vous ayez parlé, fini, vendu
  • qu’ils/elles aient parlé, fini, vendu

aller

  • que je sois allé(e)
  • que tu sois allé(e)
  • qu’il soit allé
  • qu’elle soit allée
  • qu’on soit allé(s/es)
  • que nous soyons allé(e)s
  • que vous soyez allé(e)(s)
  • qu’ils soient allés
  • qu’elles soient allées

The past subjunctive is used in the same types of subordinate clauses as the present subjunctive. It is used to indicate that the action of the subordinate clause happened before the action of the main clause.

J’ai peur qu’il parte. | I’m afraid he’ll leave.

J’ai peur qu’il soit parti. | I’m afraid he left.


Il est triste que tu ne puisses pas aller. | It’s sad that you can’t go.

Il est triste que tu n’aies pas pu. | It’s sad that you couldn’t go.


Je ne crois pas qu’ils viennent. | I don’t think they’ll come.

Je ne crois pas qu’ils soient venus. | I don’t think they came.


Nous doutons que l’équipe perde. | We doubt that the team will lose.

Nous doutons que l’équipe ait perdu. | We doubt that the team has lost.


Elle est contente que tu comprennes. | She’s happy that you understand.

Elles est contente que tu aies compris. | She’s happy that you understood.


There will be a couple more posts on this subject coming up in the next couple of weeks, so stay tuned for that. Also, I’m taking requests for posts! I hope everyone’s having a great week!

Merci à vous !

Courtney

The Subjunctive in Adjective Clauses

There is even more to the subjunctive than we have already tapped into. I’ve discussed this not too long ago here, here, and here.

An adjective clause is a subordinate clause that describes a noun much as an adjective does. Adjective clauses are also called relative clauses.

Most adjective clauses appear in the indicative:

Il a un travail qui lui plait. | He has a job that he likes.


Nous avons un bureau qui est confortable. | We have an office that’s comfortable.


Je me sers d’un ordinateur qui a beaucoup de mémoire. | I use a computer that has a lot of memory.


Il y a des entreprises ici qui font du commerce avec le Mexique. | There are firms here that trade with Mexico.

However, if the noun of the main clause in not identified or is negated, then the verb of the adjective clause appears in the subjunctive:

Il veut un travail qui lui plaise. | He wants a job that he will like.


On a besoin d’un bureau qui soit confortable. | We need an office that’s comfortable.


Je cherche un ordinateur qui ait beaucoup de mémoire. | I’m looking for a computer that has a lot of memory.


Il n’y a pas d’enterprises ici qui fassent du commerce avec le Mexique. | There are no firms here that trade with Mexico.

The subjunctive is therefore used after il n’y a rien qui/que, il n’y a personne qui/que, and il n’y a aucun/aucune X qui/que:

Il n’y a rien qui me plaise. | There’s nothing that appeals to me.


Il n’y a personne ici qui sache programmer. | There’s no one here who knows how to program.


Il n’y a aucune banque qui soit ouverte. | There’s no bank that’s open.

The indicative is used when there is no negative:

Il y a quelque chose qui me plaît. | There’s something that appeals to me.


Il y a quelqu’un ici qui sait programmer. | There’s someone here who knows how to program.


Il y a une banque qui est ouverte. | There’s a bank that’s open.


There’s even more on this subject, so be sure to come back next week for more! Have a great week, everyone!

A bientôt !

Courtney